A women’s health journey can certainly be complex and taking care of your health should be a priority. It should however also be an enjoyable one. Through expert guidance and compassionate care, we strive to find that perfect balance to make your journey as easy and stress-free as possible.

Dr Groenewald provides you with the highest quality and most compassionate healthcare available through all stages of your life. Click on any of the following service areas to learn more.

Adolescent Care

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Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and venereal diseases (VDs), are infections commonly spread by sex, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex. Most STDs initially do not cause symptoms and this can result in a greater risk of passing the disease on to others.

Signs and symptoms:

  • vaginal discharge, ulcers on or around the genitals, and pelvic pain;
  • some STDs may cause problems with the ability to get pregnant, and if acquired before or during birth, may result in poor outcomes for the baby.

Early identification and treatment results in reduced risk to spread disease, and for some conditions, may improve the outcomes of treatment. There is often a window period after initial infection during which an STI test will be negative.

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Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines may prevent infections by certain types of human papillomavirus.

Worldwide, HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection in adults. There are an estimated 529 000 new cases of cervical cancer and 275 000 deaths per year globally.
Most of the cervical cancers found annually occur in women who have never had a pap smear, or did not follow up on abnormal pap smear results.

Since the vaccine only covers some high-risk types of HPV, experts still recommend that women get pap smear screenings, even after vaccination. It is typically recommended to start with pap smear tests at the age of 21.

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Family Planning

We believe it is every woman’s right to make decisions about whether to have children or not.  At the time of making the decision to become sexually active, it is therefore important to consult with your doctor on birth control. Also known as contraception and fertility control, birth control utilises methods or devices to prevent pregnancy.  There are various methods available and through consultation with our patients we investigate the best option to suit your age, lifestyle and personal health history.

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Women’s Health

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Menopause and peri-menopause is a natural stage of life. It is not a disease or a disorder, and therefore it does not automatically require any kind of medical treatment. In those cases where the physical, mental, and emotional effects of peri-menopause are strong enough that they significantly disrupt the everyday life of the woman experiencing them, palliative medical therapy may sometimes be appropriate.

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Urinary incontinence is very common in women and is something that needs to be carefully managed in order for the problem to not affect quality of life. Treatment options range from behaviour management, bladder retraining, pelvic floor therapy, medications and surgery. The success of treatment depends on the correct diagnosis. Weight loss is recommended in women who are obese. Other treatment options may include:

  • exercises
  • medications
  • surgery
  • slings
  • tension-free trans-vaginal tape
  • bladder repositioning.

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Gynaecological Problems

Many women experience abnormal vaginal bleeding or spotting between periods sometime in their lives. Vaginal bleeding is however considered to be abnormal if it occurs:

  • When you are not expecting your menstrual period
  • When your menstrual flow is lighter or heavier than what is normal for you
  • At a time in life when it is not expected, such as: before the age of 9; when you are pregnant; or after menopause.

Abnormal vaginal bleeding has many possible causes:

  • Spotting to minimal bleeding in pregnancy may be normal, but any bleeding during pregnancy needs to be evaluated by your doctor
  • Ovulation can cause mid-cycle bleeding
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormone imbalance that interferes with normal ovulation and can cause abnormal bleeding
  • Medicines, such as birth control pills are sometimes the cause
  • An intrauterine device (IUD) also may increase your chances of spotting or heavy periods
  • Infection of the pelvic organs (vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, or ovaries)
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) causes inflammation or infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, or ovaries, which can cause abnormal bleeding.

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The earliest microscopic change of the surface lining of the cervix is usually discovered by a screening test, called the papanicolau or “pap” smear.
The purpose of this test is to detect potentially precancerous changes.
An abnormal pap smear result may lead to a recommendation for colposcopy of the cervix, during which the cervix is examined under magnification. A biopsy is taken of any areas appearing abnormal after which treatment is discussed, if required.

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An ovarian cyst is any collection of fluid, surrounded by a very thin wall, within an ovary. Any ovarian follicle, that is larger than about two centimetres, is termed an ovarian cyst. Such cysts range in size from as small as a pea to larger than an orange.

  • Most ovarian cysts are functional in nature and harmless (benign)
  • Ovarian cysts affect women of all ages. They occur most often, however, during a woman’s childbearing years
  • Some ovarian cysts cause problems, such as bleeding and pain in which case surgery may be required.

Functional cysts and haemorrhagic ovarian cysts usually resolve spontaneously. However, the bigger an ovarian cyst is, the less likely it is to disappear on its own. Treatment may be required if cysts persist over several months, grow or cause increasing pain.

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Endometriosis is a hormonal and immune system disease in which cells similar to that which line the uterus (endometrium) grow outside the uterine cavity, most commonly on the membrane which lines the abdominal cavity, called the peritoneum. It is typically diagnosed during the reproductive years and there is an established connection between endometriosis and infertility.

  • Common symptoms of endometriosis are pain and infertility. The pain is often worse with the menstrual cycle and is the most common cause of secondary dysmenorrhea
  • There is no cure for endometriosis, but it can be treated in a variety of ways, including pain medication, hormonal treatments and surgery
  • In younger women who still want to have children, treatment attempts include removing endometrial tissue and preserving the ovaries without damaging normal tissue
  • In general, the diagnosis of endometriosis is confirmed during surgery, at which time ablative steps can be taken.

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Uterine fibroids are non-cancerous growths of the uterus that often appear during childbearing years. Uterine fibroids aren’t associated with an increased risk of uterine cancer and almost never develop into cancer. As many as 3 out of 4 women have uterine fibroids sometime during their lives, but most are unaware of them because they often cause no symptoms.

Symptoms however may include:

  • Heavy menstrual bleeding
  • Prolonged menstrual periods (seven days or more of menstrual bleeding)
  • Pelvic pressure or pain
  • Frequent urination
  • Difficulty emptying the bladder
  • Constipation
  • Backache or leg pains

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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders among women. It has a diverse range of causes that are not entirely understood, but there is evidence that it is largely a genetic disease.

  • The most common immediate symptoms include anovulation, excess androgenic hormones, and insulin resistance
  • Anovulation results in irregular menstruation, amenorrhea and ovulation-related infertility
  • Hormone imbalance generally causes acne and hirsutism
  • Insulin resistance is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and high cholesterol levels. The symptoms and severity of the syndrome vary greatly among those affected.

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Female genital prolapse or pelvic organ prolapse is characterised by a portion of the vaginal canal protruding (prolapsing) from the opening of the vagina.
The condition usually occurs when the pelvic floor collapses as a result of childbirth or heavy lifting, which can tear soft tissues.
Remediation typically involves dietary and lifestyle changes, physical therapy or surgery.

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